There are several dental conditions which require surgical intervention in addition to the traditional treatment methods. The surgical procedures in dentistry are mainly performed on teeth, jaw bones and the surrounding structures.

So, what are the types?

The common surgical procedures are:

1.     Endodontic surgery: Surgery is performed on the root or pulp of the tooth.

Root canal surgery:

o   Pulpotomy. This is performed prior to root canal treatment. The pulp of teeth is opened and infected material is drained out.

o   Pulpectomy. Also performed prior to root canal treatment, the pulp of the tooth is taken out to relieve pain.

o   Apicoectomy. The terminal part of root in the jaw, known as apex, is resected in order to remove the diseased part completely.

2.     Prosthodontic surgery: Dental prosthetic procedures.

  • Crowns  (caps). Crowns are artificial tooth coverings made from ceramic, porcelain, metals, and their combinations.
  • Veneers. Crown like artificial coverings which only cover the front or visible surface of the tooth.
  • Bridges. Combination of two or more crowns used to replace missing tooth or teeth, in the form of a bridge.
  • Implant. Implant is made of titanium and is fixed surgically in the jaw at the site of missing tooth. After 4-6 months an artificial tooth is connected with the implant.
  • Dentures (false teeth). It is a set of partial or complete artificial teeth which replaces missing teeth.
  • Implant-supported prosthesis. A combination of dentures and implants used to replace missing teeth.

3.     Orthodontic surgery:

  • Implants and implant-supported prosthesis. It can be considered as orthodontic surgery as it is performed on the bones.
  • Apiectomy. A part of the underlying bone structure is removed.
  • Extraction. Removal of a diseased or problematic tooth by pulling or cutting out.
  • Fiberotomy. The fibers around a tooth are cut to prevent relapse.

4.   Periodontic Surgery:  

It involves procedures of the supporting structures of teeth which include the gingiva (gums), alveolar bone, and the periodontal ligament.

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